Level of an additional product is defined by the relation of the last to that part of a product in which necessary work is expressed. The sum of necessary work and additional work, intervals of time in which the worker makes the cost compensating it labor, and a surplus value forms an absolute value of his working hours – the working day.
The goods are an external subject (thing) which satisfies any human wants, owing to its properties. The commodity body (iron) is the potrebitelny cost, or the benefit. Potrebitelny cost is carried out only in use or consumption. Exchange value is presented in the form of a quantitative ratio, in the form of proportions in which potrebitelny costs of one sort exchange on potrebitelny costs of other sort. As potrebitelny costs goods differ first of all qualitatively as exchange values they can have only quantitative distinctions, therefore does not comprise potrebitelny cost.
Excessive work undoubtedly conducts to premature exhaustion of labor. Centuries were necessary in order that the "free" worker was compelled by public conditions to sell all active time of the life, the working capacity for the price of habitual vital means.
Any work is: the expenditure of human labor in physiological sense, and in this quality identical, or abstractly human, work forms the cost of goods. Any work is on the other hand, an expenditure of human labor in a special expedient form, and in this quality of concrete useful work it creates potrebitelny costs.
Function of money as instruments of payment consists in contradictions. Since payments are mutually repaid, money functions only ideally as calculating money or a measure of value. Money – an individual embodiment of social activities as independent cash life of exchange value (absolute goods).
Going out of the sphere of the address, money dumps from themselves the local forms acquired by them in this sphere – standards of price, coins, cost signs – and again acts in the initial form of ingots of precious metals. World money – a general instrument of payment, general purchasing means.